Many different types of infections can occur in the urinary tract, including a kidney infection. Anyone who develops a kidney infection must be treated immediately as it can become a life-threatening problem.
Keeping kidneys healthy is vital
Our kidneys are one of the hardest-working organs in the body. These two bean-shaped organs sitting opposite each other on either side of the spine spend their time extracting waste and extra water from the blood, balancing our body fluids, forming urine, and producing hormones.
Think of the kidneys sort of like a car’s exhaust system. You want them in good working order so that waste moves in one direction only – out of the body. Unfortunately, when the kidneys work fine, we tend to forget their importance. But when a kidney infection strikes, it will soon let us know something is wrong and needs our attention.
Causes of a kidney infection
Kidney infections, also known as pyelonephritis, usually develop as a bladder infection (cystitis) complication. Bacteria causing a bladder infection can sometimes travel from the anus up the tube called the urethra, where urine travels from the bladder out of the body. The infection in the bladder can then travel up another tube called the ureters which connects the bladder to the kidney resulting in a kidney infection.
Not all kidney infections are a result of a bladder infection. Instead, some develop in people prone to kidney stones or have an abnormality of the kidney.
Most kidney infections develop only in one kidney, most common in children, the elderly, and pregnant women. They are considered uncommon in men. Women are more at risk since thier urethra is closer to the anus, making it easy for bacteria to go from the bowel to the urethra. Plus, the urethra is shorter in women than men, making it another reason bacteria can reach the bladder more readily.
Symptoms of a kidney infection
If the kidneys become infected, symptoms usually develop quickly within a few hours and may include:
- Pain in the lower back below the rib cage where the kidneys are located
- A high fever may cause shivers, chills, malaise
- Abdominal pain
- Feeling nauseated and/or having vomiting
- Blood in the urine
- Cloudy urine or urine odor
- Painful urination and needing to go to the bathroom frequently
Sometimes kidney infection symptoms can be vague and may cause a person to generally feel unwell but not certain why. In elderly people, it can confuse, making it important to do a urine test if they suddenly become confused, act differently, or act unwell.
Testing for a kidney infection
If a person has symptoms or signs of a kidney infection, it is very important to go to their doctor immediately. Not doing so could lead to more serious complications, as a kidney infection needs to be treated with prescribed medication.
The test used to check for a kidney infection is called a dipstick urine test. A person will need to see their doctor, giving a urine sample, and the urine will be tested with a special testing strip looking for signs of an infection.
Treatment for a kidney infection
Once a diagnosis of kidney infection is confirmed, a person will be prescribed an antibiotic to help kill the bacteria and clear up the infection. The antibiotic course lasts 7-14 days, depending on which one is used.
If a person is experiencing pain or has a high temperature, a painkiller may be suggested. However, it is advised not to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen for a kidney infection as they may cause a problem with the working of the kidney during a kidney infection.
Consuming plenty of fluid is recommended to prevent dehydration.
Most people can be treated at home if the infection is not too severe. However, some people may need to be admitted to a hospital if:
- The infection is severe
- The person is unable to take fluids to prevent dehydration
- The symptoms do not go away with antibiotics
- The person is a pregnant woman
- The person has underlying kidney problems
- The person has diabetes
Possible complications from a kidney infection
The vast majority of people who develop a kidney infection will make a full recovery when given the proper treatment. But there can be possible complications for a small minority of people:
- If the bacteria from a kidney infection gets into the bloodstream, causing blood poisoning or sepsis, which can be serious or even life-threatening
- Pregnant women may go into early labor
- The infection can sometimes cause permanent damage to kidney tissues
- Preventing kidney infections
Since most kidney infections are caused by bacteria coming from a bladder infection, it helps to do the same things that reduce the chance of developing a bladder infection to prevent a kidney infection. Here are steps to take to reduce the chance of getting a kidney infection:
- Drink plenty of fluids, especially water which can help remove bacteria from the body during urination.
- Urinate frequently during the day to flush out bacteria present
- Empty the bladder after sexual intercourse. Urinating right after intercourse clears bacteria from the urethra, helping reduce infection risk.
- Wipe carefully from front to back after urinating and bowel movements to prevent bacteria from spreading to the urethra.
- Avoid using feminine products in the genital area. For example, using products such as deodorant sprays or douches in the genital area can irritate the urethra.
Dr. David Samadi is the Director of Men’s Health and Urologic Oncology at St. Francis Hospital in Long Island. He’s a renowned and highly successful board certified Urologic Oncologist Expert and Robotic Surgeon in New York City, regarded as one of the leading prostate surgeons in the U.S., with a vast expertise in prostate cancer treatment and Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy. Dr. Samadi is a medical contributor to NewsMax TV and is also the author of The Ultimate MANual, Dr. Samadi’s Guide to Men’s Health and Wellness, available online both on Amazon and Barnes & Noble. Visit Dr. Samadi’s websites at robotic oncolo gy and prostate cancer 911.